김명주(2016), '『한청문감』에 나타난 ㆍ표기와 그 변화 양상', 한글 314, 한글학회, 45- .
Focusing on Hancheongmungam(1779), this paper investigates the notation of arae a /ㆍ/ and the changes it underwent in late 18th century, based on the position of the syllable in which arae a /ㆍ/ occurs and the preceding consonant. The following characteristics drawn by this investigation underpins the idea that this period constitutes the first phase of the dephonologization of arae a /ㆍ/.
First, most of the arae a /ㆍ/ present in this material are being used regardless of the position of the corresponding syllable. Second, in the case of lexical morphemes, arae a /ㆍ/ in word-initial position tend to display the following changes: ㆍ>ㅏ, ㅏ>ㆍ. When arae a /ㆍ/ becomes a /ㅏ/, a considerable number of examples correspond to word-forms which have kept intact the notation of the original arae a /ㆍ/ and both spellings are used indifferently. Similarly, cases where a /ㅏ/ becomes arae a /ㆍ/ correspond to word-forms originally written with a /ㅏ/ and both forms are found in Hancheongmungam. Third, non-initial position arae a /ㆍ/ in lexical morphemes may undergo the following changes: ㆍ>ㅏ, ㅏ>ㆍ, ㆍ>ㅡ, ㅡ>ㆍ, ㆍ>ㅗ, ㅗ>ㆍ. These changes, which began in the 16th century, considerably expanded in the 18th century. Fourth, in the case of grammatical morphemes most of arae a /ㆍ/ appear to have undergone the change ㆍ>ㅡ. The adnominal clause ending -nun ‘-’ uniformly remains -nun ‘-’ regardless of the preceding vowel. As for the remaining grammatical morphemes, if the preceding consonant is h /ㅎ/, arae a /ㆍ/ and u /ㅡ/ are used simultaneously. The conservative notation of ‘(X)-’ can be seen as influencing the notation of other grammatical morphemes. Fifth, the ᆞ>ㅏ change in word-initial position is not frequent and cannot easily be correlated with the preceding consonant. Sixth, the ㆍ>ㅡ change in non-initial position appears to occur no matter the preceding consonant.